of the city of Huesca
San Lorenzo, is a son of Orencio
and Paciencia, and he's assumeed born in the city of Huesca,
although there is who locates his origins in Tiburtina (Rome), or
in Tarragona, Cordova and until even in Valencia.
In the middle of century III, Orencio
and Paciencia emphasized in Huesca by their kindness.
Orencio would marry with this accumulated lady, but resigning
to all luxury and ostentation, occupying like house which is today
the Hermitage of Loreto, in the environs of the city of Huesca.
Of this marriage, there would be two children -Orencio and
Lorenzo- that gained the respect of all by the great virtues
of which they made display. When dying Patience, Orencio father
is very downcast and one night, while he made oration, appears to
him an angel who says him: “Take your son named Orencio and
go to the place that I will show to you”. Orencio took his
son and marched to Tarbes (France), where he found the place
ideal to live dedicating himself to own works on the field.
It is counted of this stage of the
life of San Orencio, that having two rebellious white young
bulls, and that already tired of its pranks, signaled on its the Cross
and they was transformed into tamed animals. Another day, a wolf killed
a young bull, but soon after appeared the wolf being united to yoke
with the other young bull. This legend is reflected in the cathedral
of Zaragoza and the one of Huesca.
When San Orencio returned to
Huesca, he had a great reception; and when he died, was buried
in the chapel of Loreto, where Santa Paciencia was buried
San Lorenzo was one of the seven
deacons of Rome, position that arrived to him from the hand of Sixto
II, when was named Pope in 257. Lorenzo was the responsible
of the administration of the goods of the Church and the care of the
poor men. By this work, he is considered one of the first treasurers
of the Church, and is the Saint of the librarians.
During the persecution of the Christians
under the administration of Valeriano I Emperor in 258, many priests
and bishops were condemned until death, whereas the Christians who
belonged to the nobility or the Senate. their goods were confiscated
to the time that sent to exile. Pope Sixto II was one of the
first victims of this persecution, and was crucified the day 6 of
A legend mentioned by San Ambrosio
of Milan says that Lorenzo was with Sixto in his way
to the crucifixion, and that asked to him “Where do you go, dear father,
without your son? where do you hurry, saint father, without your deacon?
Never before you mounted the altar of sacrifices without your crew
member, and now you wish to do it without me? ”, to which the Pope
responded: “In three days you will follow to me”.
When was indicated to Lorenzo
who would give to Valeriano emperor those goods that he had
in safekeeping, another thing was not thought for him that to present
to the emperor all orphans, widows and indigents that were to his
care, because those other goods, had distributed them between the
poor men. The legend says that when Valeriano I Emperor, demanded
that Lorenzo would give the wealth of the Church, Lorenzo reunited
to the blind, the cripples, the widowers, the orphans and the lepers
and presented him, saying: “This is the treasure of the Church.”.
For that reason, he was martyred, between the 253-258, undergoing
terrible punishments of jail, hurt with iron and at the end being
burned alive in a bonfire -concretely in a grill- near the field of
Verano in Rome. His festivity is celebrated at 10 of August, day in
which -according to the tradition- he received martyrdom.
The legend counts that when he was already
suffering the martyrdom, showed value and was able to joke: “Listen,
please, by this part I am already cooked. You can already turn me”.
Lorenzo was buried in the Via
Tiburtina, in the catacombs of Ciriaca, by Hipólito and Justino,
a priest. It's said that Constantino I el Grande commanded
to construct a small oratoriy in honor of the martyr, that became
a stop point in the itineraries of peregrination to the tombs of the
Roman martyrs in century VII. Pope Dámaso I reconstructed the
church, nowadays well-known as “Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le
Mura”, whereas the “Basílica di San Lorenzo in Panisperna”
is raised on the place of his martyrdom. The grill used in this martyrdom
was kept by Paschal II Pope in the church of San Lorenzo of
In the Passio Polychronü (the
Facts of the martyrdom of San Lorenzo) it's read that the martyr,
before being placed in the grill to be burned, wanted to pray by Rome.
The city, in gratefulness signal, has dedicated 34 churches to him,
first of which was erected, according to the custom, in the place
of the martyrdom, “in agro Verano”, the present Roman cemetery.
So much honor has even had not the main patrons of Rome, San Pedro
and San Pablo.
Lorenzo is one of the saints
more widely venerated by the Roman Catholic Church. His martyrdom
happened very early in the history of the Church, thus many other
Christian traditions honor him also. He is the patron of the City
of Huesca. also, specially is venerated in Rome, and he is one of
the patrons of the city. It is also the patron of the librarians,
cooks, tanners and miners. The 10 of August the reliquary that contains
his burned head is exposed in the Vatican to be venerated. The typical
symbology shows to San Lorenzo taking a grill and dressing
a dalmática (robe, chasuble); sometimes is showed with the palm of
the martyrdom and the book of Gospels also.
In the Community of Madrid is
the Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial, constructed by Felipe
II to commemorate the victory of San Quintín the 10 of
August of 1557, thanking the protection of the martyr San Lorenzo.
For it, he made construct the monastery with grill form, for being
the instrument of that martyrdom.
In Huesca, the Celebrations in honor
of San Lorenzo, are from the 9 to the 15 of August (day 10,
is San Lorenzo). In afternoon of the 9, are celebrated the
named "Las Completas", that were sung formerly by
the Orfeón and at this moment by the Great Choir of San
Lorenzo and also the round to Santo, sounding the "jota".
The morning of day 10 in the square of San Lorenzo, the Dancers
execute the dances of Swords, Old and Modern Woods, Vals of Ribbons
and the "Degollau" (beheaded), while between basil
aromas the traditional special Altoaragón Newspaper is stared
at. Soon the procession will leave, in which the Real Brotherhood
of Horsemen of San Lorenzo accompanies the image of the San
Lorenzo and the dancers interpreting the Dance of Swords, to the
sound of the music of Valentin Gardeta. At the return, the
dancers enter in the Basilica until presbytery, before being celebrated
the Mass of Pontifical.