from Aragon, Valencia, Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica
Count from Barcelona and king from Sicily
Martin I of Aragon (Gerona 1356 - Barcelona
1410), is also known as Martin Ith the Human and Martin Ith the Old.
Between years 1396 and 1410 he was king of Aragon, of Valencia, of
Majorca, of Sardinia and count of Barcelona. Equally he was king of
Sicily among yeras 1409 and 1410.
He was born in Gerona the 29 of July
of 1356, being second son of Pedro IV of Aragon and his third
wife Leonor of Sicily, Martin marriied in 1372 with María
de Luna, daughter of Don Lope, the first count of Luna,
being born of this union, in 1374, his first son and heir Martin the
Youth. His Real House would be therefore, the House of Aragon.
In 1375 his mother dies, from who he will
inherit her rights on Sicily, Kingdom on which he will reinforce his
position when in 1379 would be agreed the marriage between his son
and heir with María of Sicily, who in 1377 had inherited the
Sicilian throne after her father's death Federico III of Sicily. Given
the minority of age of both, the marriage would not take place until
1390, and Martin I will be named Lord and Regent of Sicily in 1380.
After the coronation, in Palermo, of
María of Sicily and Martin the Youth who received the title of Martin
I of Sicily, a faction of the Sicilian nobility in favor of Anjou
was rebelled against the new kings, what forced Martin the Old to
bring to front of a fleet and to move to Sicily to put end to the
insurrection. While he was immersed in the pacification of the island,
he was surprised in 1396 by his brother's death the king from Aragon
and the news that, having died without masculine succession, his wife
María of Luna had claimed the throne on her behalf..
When not having put end to the Sicilian
insurrection he had to delay his return to the Peninsula, for what
would be his wife, María of Luna, who had to make in front
of the successoral pretenses, so much of the widow of Juan I -Violante
de Bar who announced that waited a son of the died king who would
be his legitimate heir-, as of Mateo I, count of Foix who for
his marriage with Juana of Aragon and Armagnac, eldest daughter
of the deceased king, alleged his rights to the Aragonese throne.
The troops of the count of Foix entered in Aragon, but were
rejected by the loyal troops to Martin.
The unstable situation of his peninsular Kingdom
made Martin to abandon Sicily in 1397, and when arriving in Zaragoza
he swore the jurisdictions in The Courts. October of 1397, 13, being
crowned April 13 of 1399.
All his reign was marked by the Schism
of West that divided to the Christendom from year 1378. .
He was in favor of the popes of Avignon,
of those who obtained support in his pretenses on the Kingdom of Sicily
in front of Anjou, in favor of the popes of Rome.
In 1397, when he returned of Sicily
to take charge of the Aragonese throne, he interviewed in Avignon
with the antipope Benedicto XIII -Aragonese and the queen's
relative- with the intention of solving the schism and, later on,
in 1403, he intervened militarily against the blockade that Benedicto
suffered in his papal headquarter, rescuing him and welcoming him
He threw two crusades against the North
of África in 1398 and 1399.
His son Martin of Sicily, with San Luis'
victory (1409), had just subjected to the rebellious nobility of Sardinia,
expelling of there to the Genoese in 1409.
In general it was a reign of external
peace, which sharpened the struggles between
noble sides in the interior.
On December 29, 1406 the queen Maria
de Luna died, that although she had given to him four children
(Martín, Jaime, Juan and Margarita), they all should
die before their father, therefore Martín I decided to contract
the second nuptials with Margarita de Prades on September 17,
1408, who did not give him any heir, so when Martín died in
Barcelona on May 31, 1410 -at age 54- the throne was without
legitimate descent, reason by which there was opened an interregnum
of two years in which the throne was disputed up to six claimants
-between them his bastard grandson Fadrique de Luna- and that
should be solved in 1412 with the called Commitment of Caspe
that would elect as his successor to Fernando I, member of
the Castilian dynasty of the Trastámara.
This king was buried in the Real Tombs
of the Monastery of Poblet. His descent were: Martín el
Joven (1374-1409), king of Sicily of 1390. Jaime (1378-?).
Juan (1380-?) and Margarita (1385-?), who would not
be successors of him in the throne.