Huesca temática

Number 158 - July of 2011Spanish language Principal menu

Carlos Ith of Spain (1st. part)

Carlos Ith of Spain
and Vth of the Roman Germanic Sacred Empire

     Carlos of Austria, or Habsburgo (Ghent, February 24 1500 - Monastery of Yuste, September 21 of 1558) was King of Spain with Carlos' name I (1516 -1556), the first that united in his person the crowns of Castile, Aragon and Navarrese; and Emperor of the Roman Germanic Sacred Empire as Carlos V (1520 -1558), called Caesar, Caesar Carlos or His Caesarean Majesty. .
    Son of Juana I of Castile and Felipe the Beautiful, and grandson -by paternal line- of Maximiliano I of Austria (Habsburgo) and María de Borgoña (of who inherited the Low Countries - Netherlands-, the Austrian territories and right to the imperial throne) and by maternal line, of Catholics Kimgs, of who inherited Castile, Navarrese, the Islands Canaries, the Indies, Naples, Sicily and Aragon..
    During the celebration of a dance in the palace House of the Prince (Prinsenhof) from Ghent, Flanders, the pregnant archduchess Juana began to feel strong pains in the stomach. Believing that it were due to a bad digestion, she went to the bathroom and there, without help of anybody, she gave birth to her second son being 3:30 of the dawn of Tuesday February 24 of 1500. She wanted to put him Juan's name in memory of her deceased brother, but finally he was baptized as Carlos by his father's desire and in his great-grandfather's memory, Carlos the Bold, who died in Nancy's Battle in 1477. The baptism, celebrated March 7, was officiated by the bishop of Tournai, Pierre Quick, in the church of San Bavón. To it went as godmothers Margarita of Austria, handcuff of the deceased prince Juan, and Margarita of York, wife of Carlos the Bold, and like godfathers Carlos of Croy, prince of Chimay, and the gentleman of Vergás..
     Before he would a year old, Felipe named Carlos duke of Luxemburg and gentleman of the Burgundian order of the Golden Fleece. On November 16 of 1501, Felipe and Juana left toward Spain to be sworn the Courts like successors of Catholics Kings and they left Carlos under the care of Margarita of York. During their step for France, Felipe met with the king Luis XII and the marriage agreed among his daughter Claudia and Carlos, treatment that was renewed with the signature of the Treaty of Blois years later. After the return of Felipe to Flanders and due to the advanced age of Margarita de York, he left Carlos under the care of the lady of Ravenstein, Ana of Burgundy; he named gentleman of the camera of Carlos to his godfather also, Carlos of Croy, and commended his education to burgundy teachers that taught him the history of the dukedom. Fernando the Catholic, aware that Carlos could occupy some day his throne, sent Luis de Vaca to Flanders so that he taught him Castilian and the Spanish customs, although when the prince arrivedin Spain years later, was not still able to speak this language correctly
     At the beginning of 1506, Felipe and Juana leave again toward Spain to claim the crown of Castile after death of Isabel the Catholic, but their reign lasted little, since he died in a premature way in September and her, prey of the madness,was locked by Fernando in a convent of Tordesillas. Due to the minority of age of Carlos, his grandfather Maximiliano I assumed the regency of the Low Countries (Netherlands), although soon after he gave him the position to his daughter Margarita of Austria, together guardianship of Carlos and his siblings. The young prince's education was developed in Flanders and it was filled of flamenco culture. In 1509 the emperor prepared that Guillermo of Croy, gentleman of Chiévres, substitutes his cousin Carlos of Croy like prince's gentleman of camera and Adriano of Utrecht, dean of the University of Lovaina and future pope Adriano VI, was named his teacher.
    January of 1515, 5 after Guillermo of Croy got the emperor would declare most of age of Carlos, the General States named him Mr. of the Netherlands. This way concluded the regency of his aunt Margarita, but the youth sovereign didn't still have own will to govern and the gentleman of Chièvres, being of his total trust, managed all the power. That same year, Adriano of Utrech traveled to Spain to make sure that Fernando the Catholic didn't deprive Carlos of the inheritance of Castile and Aragon in his brother's favor Fernando who had been raised next to him and he was his favorite grandson. Although he committed to name Carlos like successor, the trustees of the king had to make an effort to be able to convince him, little before his death, and that Fernando was not designated.

     January of 1516, 22, his grandfather Fernando II of Aragon edited his last testament. In it, he named Carlos Governor and Administrator of the Kingdom of Castile and León, on behalf of the queen Juana I, disabled by her illness. In the concerning to the Crown of Aragon, the king Fernando left all his states to his daughter Juana, naming, also in this case, Governor-general to Carlos on behalf of his mother. Until Carlos arrived, in Castile would govern the cardinal Cisneros and in Aragon the archbishop Alonso de Aragon.
     January 23 died the king Fernando in Madrigalejo (current county of Cáceres). Starting from then, Carlos began to think of taking "King's" title, advised by his flamenco consultants. The Council of Castile sent him a letter March 4 in that requested him that respects his mother's titles, since "that would be to remove -the son to the father in life- the honor." But, ten days later the funeral honors for the king Fernando finished with screams of: "Live the Catholic Kings live Juana and Carlos their son. live is the king, live is the king, live is the king"
      March 21 Carlos sent a letter to Castile in which informed of his decision of being titled King. After long deliberations of the Council, April 3 the cardinal Cisneros informed to the Kingdom of Carlos' decision. 13 in the same month were informed of the new real entitlement: Doña Juana and don Carlos his son, reigns and king from Castile, of León, of Aragon, of Two Sicily, of Jerusalem, of Navarrese, of Granada, of Toledo, of Valencia, of Galicia, of Majorca, of Seville, of Sardinia, of Córdoba, of Corsica, of Murcia, of Jaén, of Algarves, of Algeciras, of Gibraltar, of the islands of Canaria, of the Islands, Indies and Mainland of the sea Ocean, counts of Barcelona, gentlemen of Biscay and of Molina, dukes of Athens and Neopatria, counts of Ruisellón and of Cerdaña, marquises of Oristán and of Gociano, archdukes of Austria, dukes of Burgundy and of Bravante, counts of Flanders, of Tyrol, etc. In May, the three establishments of the Kingdom of Navarrese, gathered at the request of the viceroy Antonio Manrique of Lara, swore fidelity to Carlos like his king and natural gentleman.

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      In the Crown of Aragon the situation was chaotic. The Justice of Aragon prevented to govern the archbishop Alonso of Aragon alleging that, according to the Aragonese laws, governor's position could only be exercised by the heir to the Throne. The Real Audience of Aragon agreed with to the Justice, but it sentenced that the archbishop could govern as a curator of the Queen Juana. But the Justice neither allowed it then, alleging that Juana was no longer the heiress, since when she swore her to him as such, it was included that if the king had a male son, this would pass to transform into the heir. And, therefore, like in 1509 Fernando had had a son with Germana of Foix, Juana's oath was annulled (although the boy had died at the few hours). May 13 Carlos recognized the archbishop's powers, as the healer of the Juana queen, but, even so, it was rejected to lend him oath. On the other hand, the Delegation of the Kingdom of Aragon recognized Juana like heiress of the Crown, but as for her illness she could not reign, ahe should be remote of the government so that her son reigned. To everything it was added that no institution of the Crown of Aragon recognized Carlos King's title until he didn't swear the Jurisdictions and freedoms of the Kingdom.
     Between the Summer of 1516 and principles of 1517, Carlos assured his position with the signature of some diplomatic agreements, as the Treaty of Noyón with France. Also, the General States agreed to grant him 800.000 crowns for the expenses of the trip. September of 1517 Carlos embarked toward Spain. For the bad time he disembarked in Tazones (Asturias) instead of Santander, what retarded even more the trip

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