Huesca: The Paleolithic
THE FIRST EMPLACEMENTS: The urban kernel neither was existing, and the individuals were forming communities that were living in the surroundings than what would be the current site, where by unknown reasons, would be seated after. The limits of these communities could have been in connection with 40 Km. of radio, that it is an easily salvageable distance by these prehistoric occupants. The Paleolithic supposes the appearance of the man on the orb and encompasses a period of time, nearby to 2 million of years. It is an adverse world that compels to be faced with the periods of cold (Glacial Era) and lacking of resources, as well as to fight for the survival (hunt) in an only depredater attitude.
The most ancient dataproceed of the Middle Paleolithic (50 to 30.000 years before of the Era change), in Castello de Pla (Pilzán), Gravera de San Bartolomé in Altorricón, Cave of the Moro de Gabasa (Peralta of Calasanz) and Cave of the Fuente del Trucho (Asque-Colungo); here they have been obtained projects on sílex and "musteriensis" quartz (paleolithic middle) attributed to the man of Neanderthal, variety belonging with full right to the kind `Homo Sapiens'.
The cave of the Fuente del Trucho, it is the most next to Huesca. Its occupants were living of the hunt of the wild horse and already there is certain community organization, as was confirmed with the finding in 1984 of a household heating engineer, in the form of basin, of more than 2 m. of diameter. This appliance, was constituted by a debriss conglomeration, pebbles and ashes, with stones and embers (the stones, previously heated, were maintaining and were irradiating their heat); the combustion of the woods were made in other bonfire outside of the cave, to avoid the smokes and only the incandescent blights were deposited in the heating engineer. Its efficiency was proven, since it was reached 15º to 20º when, abroad, there was less than zero. The date of the Cave of the Trucho, is like the Cave of the Moro de Gabasa: about 44.550 years before our Era.
In the SUPERIOR PALEOLITHIC , the man hunts and gathers, but above all he has been specialized in the stone, that he works finely. It is tried about Man of Cromagnon, almost undistinguishable of us by the physical characters. Fits to him the honor of being the first artist, since he moulds the first expressions of the History. The deposits yet they are more next to Huesca: The Cave of Chaves in Bastarás (Casbas of Huesca), with two rooms. One of them (Upper "Solutrensis" ), date of 17.750 before C. and the other ( advanced "Magdaleniensis") is of the 10.070 before C.. The artistic demonstrations are found in the Cave of the Fuente del Trucho, with painted images (horses, hands in negative, points and abstract signs) in roof and walls. Abroad, there is an encumbered image, that could be a bear. This "rupestris" art (rupes=cave), is own of deep caves and represent generally hunt scenes and animal as horses, bison, auroch and some pachydermous (almost always they are tried to "grass-eaters" animals ).
* Manuel Tomé Bosqued.